Help, I Have No Financials!

IB Business.

Obtaining financial data from companies can be tricky. Some companies oblige, others don´t, or they may give you some financial data but not very much. However, if you want a high mark for your HL coursework, it is recommended to try and do some financial analysis of your chosen company.

Why is getting financials tricky?

  1. The company may not be doing very well financially, and it does not want the whole world to know about it.
  2. It may not want competitors to see their financials, for obvious reasons.
  3. The numbers may reveal how much income the owners of the company make from their business, which is personal information.

Here are a few tips to help you increase your chances of obtaining financial data.

Say upfront, when you first contact the company, that you will need to have some financial data. If they say that this is not possible, move on to another company. This is a good strategy, if you have a wide choice of companies who could be the subjects of your research.

What happens if you don´t have a wide choice of possible companies? In this case, when first approaching your company don´t mention the need to have financial data. Talk vaguely about the need to collect ´information´ . Develop a good rapport  with your contacts in the company and wait until you feel that they trust you, before broaching the subject. This could be after the third or fourth visit. They should be more likely to say yes.

Even after all this, what happens if they still say no?

It´s not the end of the world! Your response should be:-

“OK, fine, I fully understand. Financials are sensitive. However, would it be possible to give me some financial information?  It does not have to be the actual numbers, but maybe percentage changes in certain variables, such as revenues, important costs, liabilities, assets  etc”.

In other words getting some information is better than none. And some of the best coursework my students have done has been when they have obtained some financial information and then, in the process of  analysing and evaluating this information, they have made ´guesstimates´about the missing data. As long as those guesstimates are based on good assumptions, further research and solid reasoning, you will be positively rewarded by the examiner.





Choosing Your Company – HL Coursework.

IB  Business.

If you don’t choose the right company for your HL Internal Assessment, then this could hamper you from the start. I give my students the following advice:-

  • Select a company that is quite small, ideally between 20 and 75 employees.
  • Choose one in which a family friend or family aquantance works, or one that has a conection with your family.  
  • Do not choose the company  that your parents work for.
  • The company should be in easy travelling distance from your home. 

Why this advice?

Smaller companies are much easier to navigate around, and to collect primary data from. Large companies, particularly multinationals, are notoriously bureaucratic, and it can be very time consuming getting permission to visit, or getting permission to talk to the right person in the right department. You will need to collect all your data during relatively few visits over a short short time span, three or four visits maximum. This is easier to do with a small, rather than a big company. Students can also get overwhelmed with the complexity, and the amount of secondary data that they are given by large companies.

With regard to the second bullet point, it is very hard to approach companies  ‘blind’  – you need to have a contact in the company to help facilitate your visit. You need a ‘foot in the door’ as it were.

Don’t choose the company that your parents work for. It can be quite hard to be objective about an organisation that your Dad founded, or your mum is the CEO of! Remember, the point of the IA is to critically evaluate the organisation. 

You may have to make multiple visits to your company so that it should not be too far away.

Brazil’s Labour Laws Reformed.

IB Business & IB Economics.

For the first time since 1945, as from today, November the 11th, 2017, new labour laws come into force in Brazil. The new laws have been welcomed by the business community, who feel that the laws bring Brazil’s labour market into the 21st century, but many, including  the Trade Unions and the poor, have protested against the changes.

In economic language these types of changes are often referred to as ‘ making the labour market more flexible’. In economics it is an example of a ‘ market based supply side policy’ the aim of which is to  increase economic growth and shift the long run aggregate supply curve of the economy to the right (see below).


Agg. Supply Curve Shifting Right.

The laws make it easier for companies to hire and fire workers, allow companies to use their workforce in more flexible ways, which will cut the cost of labour for many businesses. However, they are controversial and some feel that Brazil’s poor will be worst hit by the changes.

It is difficult to summarize all the changes to the law in such a short blog, but here are some of the highlights:-

  • It will be easier and less expensive to hire and fire workers. 
  • Meal vouchers, medical insurance, bonuses and travelling expenses will no longer be classified as ‘ employee remuneration’ as they are now.
  • Compulsory union contributions have been abolished. They will be voluntary from now on.
  • Allowing companies to split their employee’s vacation time into three separate periods. Previously holidays had to be taken over one period of 30 days per year.
  • From now on employers will not pay their workers overtime if they stay on at their work premises  because of poor weather or unsafe conditions.
  • Time spent travelling to work is no longer considered as ‘ working hours’. In the past it was.
  • Employers can now bargain directly with their workers to set pay and conditions, rather than with a Trade Union.
  • It will be easier to hire  workers on different types of contracts – part-time , remote workers (working from home) and intermittent workers.
  • Companies with 200 or more employees will have to set up a Worker Representation Committee.
  • Outsourcing will now be allowed , even for ‘core business’ functions. Previously it was only allowed for peripheral business functions like catering and security.
  • ‘ Equal pay for equal work’  rules will be more flexible. Previously workers working on different business sites, or even in the same city, could claim equal pay for equal work. Now it will be restricted to workers only working on the same site.


Labor Newsletter: Mayer/Brown/Tauil/Chequer.  Labor Law (“Labor Reform”) – Federal Law No. 13.467/2017,  July 20th, 2017. 


Business Internal Assessment (SL) – It’s All In the Secondary Data, Stupid!


Unlike the HL internal assessment in IB business, which emphasises collecting primary data,  the emphasis in the SL internal assessment is on collecting secondary data. Primary data is data that you collect yourself, using interviews, surveys, questionnaires etc.  Secondary data is data that someone else has already collected or assembled for you. Examples are business reports, articles in the news media, information on company websites and Annual Reports. For this reason, the SL internal assessment is quicker and easier to do, because you have the data all there at your fingers tips, as it were.

Here is the assessment criteria for the supporting documents:-

Criteria A: Supporting Documents

A number of things need to be noted here.

  • Don’t select documents that are more than 3 years old
  • Ensure documents are translated into the language of submission, if they are written in a different language.
  • Include a minimum of 3, and a maximum of 5 documents. And don’t exceed the maximum!
  • They must be relevant, in-depth and must ‘provide a range of different views’.

By ‘range of different views’ it means that the documents must illustrate  different view points and opinions about the company or issue / problem that you are studying. So, for example, if all your data sources come from the company itself i.e. are all internal to the company, such as Annual Reports, marketing documents, the company website etc. then it is likely that you are going to be reading data that is biased in favour of the company and it’s activities. This may hinder your ability to really objectively analyse and evaluate the company, its strategies and the issue that you are studying. 

So it’s important to get documents that are not just internal to the company, but also ones that are external as well.  These should be more balanced and critical of the company. 

Prior to my students starting their research, I give them this document to help them collect a wide range of data sources (see below). I ask them to collect as many different internal and external sources of data as they can on the company or problem / issue they are studying prior to them writing their internal assessment.

Checklist for Supporting Documents

Executive Pay and Donald Trump.


From ‘Brexit’, to the election of Donald Trump as US president, a number of recent world events have surprised and shocked many people.

Can we link anything on the IB Economics and IB Business & Management syllabuses to these profound changes in politics, society and economics? Can business and economics explain anything about these happenings?

Of course it can!

Let’s look first at executive pay (Section 2.4 of the Business syllabus, salaries and remuneration) . As Ha-Joon Chang points out in his masterly book “23 Things They Don’t Tell You About Capitalism“, the salaries (or more accurately the compensation packages) of senior US company executives has increased dramatically over the past few decades. In Chapter 14 of his book, “US Managers Are Overpriced”, Chang produces some astonishing statistics to back up his claim in the title of the chapter. He says that in the 1960’s the ratio of CEO compensation to average worker compensation used to be in the region of 30-40 to 1; in the 1990’s this ratio rose to about 100 to 1, and in the 2000’s to an astonishing 300-400 to 1 (P150).

How do economists explain such a huge rise in executive pay in US corporations? Demand and supply of course!  (Section 1 of the syllabus, Microeconomics) The reason why executive salaries have risen so high, they say, is that the demand for such skilled and able managers far exceeds their supply. Companies have to pay these managers such high salaries because,  if they don’t, they would be poached by their competitors. Moreover, these high salaries just reflect the ‘ contribution’ (read productivity) that these executives give to the companies that employ them.

Chang comprehensively debunks this argument. He points out that it is mainly neo-classical, or free-market economists (Section 2 of the syllabus, Macroeconomics), who believe this. US Executives would have to be ten times more productive than equivalent personnel just a generation ago and this is extremely unlikely (P151).

Moreover, why have average US worker wages remained stagnant? Is this because their productivity has remained unchanged over the past two or three decades? Again highly unlikely, says Chang (P152).

Real Average Hourly Wages, USA.


The diagram above shows how the average hourly wage growth of the richest people in the US population has increased dramatically since the beginning of the century, whilst the wages of lower income groups, the 20th and median percentiles,  have fallen.

Chang also points out that US executives, in comparison to their foreign counterparts, are excessively paid. In 2005, Swiss and German CEO’s were paid 64 and 55 percent of their US counterparts’ salaries; Swedish and Dutch CEO’s were paid 44 and 40 percent respectively, and the Japanese a measly 25 percent (P152).

So what has all this got to do with the election of Donald Trump? A lot. Trump ran on a ticket saying that he was going protect the American middle classes and the jobs of working class Americans. He fed off the justifiable anger that many middle class and poor Americans feel about the stagnation of their wages and the consequent fall in their living standards.  He used the language of ‘them and us’ –  it is us against the ‘global elite’.

Who is this ‘ global elite’? According to Chang, it is composed of super-wealthy business executives, who for years have paid themselves bigger and bigger salaries and better and better compensation packages at the expense of their own employees (and indeed of their own citizens and own societies).

“ The power of this managerial class has been most vividly demonstrated by the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. When the American and the British governments injected astronomical sums of taxpayers’ money into troubled financial institutions in the autumn of 2008, few of the managers responsible for their institution’s failure were punished. Yes, a small number of CEO’s have lost their jobs, but few of those that have remained in their jobs have taken a serious pay cut…” (P155).


How To Synthsize and Evaluate.


If you want to get top marks on your IB Business & Management course you have to be able to synthesize and evaluate well. It is classified as a ‘ higher order skill’ and so gains high marks for students who can do it well.

So what is it,  how do you do it and when do you need to do it?

It is one of the courses’  ‘Assessment Objectives’, AO3 in particular.

According to the syllabus, synthesis and evaluation:-

“ …..require students to rearrange component ideas into a new whole and make judgments based on evidence or a set of criteria”. (P21 Business & Management syllabus.)

Synthesis is the process by which a seemingly disparate set of ideas and concepts is brought together into a simplified whole. Evaluation involves making a balanced judgement based on evidence.

What do you need to apply it to? Business strategies and practices or decisions. It requires critical thinking and formulating recommendations at the end of the process.

Examples of the type of decisions might be a business:-

Launching a new product, entering a new market, deciding to downsize and delayer,  implementing a new production process, or deciding to merge with another company. The possible scenarios are endless.

When and where do you need to do it? Whenever you see the following ‘command terms’ in the exam:-

Evaluation Command Terms

And in these sections of the exam and internal assessment:-

Evaluation in the exams and coursework.

How do you do it? Well it is quite hard, especially under the limited time of examination conditions,and requires practice.

A number of approaches can be taken:-

  1. Focus on the different stakeholders in the business – investors, employees, shareholders, suppliers, the local community etc.  Which ones benefit and lose out from the decision or strategy and why? What are the short and long run effects on these stakeholders? List the stakeholders from most affected, to least affected and why.
  2. Focus on how the different functional departments are affected by the decision or strategy. The Marketing, Finance, Operations (Production) and Human Resources departments. How will they be affected by the strategy? What policies will they need to implement and will this be positive or negative for the company?
  3. Focus on the impact of the decision or strategy on the company financial statements, the Profit & Loss Account, the Balance Sheet and the Cash Flow Statement. Will the decision increase or decrease revenues and costs (the Profit & Loss Account)? Will it have a positive or negative impact on working capital or on the overall valuation of the company (Balance Sheet)? Will it increase or decrease net cash flow (Cash Flow Statement)?

As you can see, this is quite a difficult thing to to do, but is possible with lots of practice!

Brexit – A Revolt Against Globalisation.

IB Economics & IB Business.

On Thursday June 23rd the British people voted in a referendum to leave the European Union ( EU). The value of the Pound promptly dropped 10% and stock markets around the word fell. As a British citizen myself who is on holiday in the UK, I thought that it would be apposite to make Brexit the topic of my next blog post.  Brexit is short for a ‘ British exit’ of the EU.

So what has Brexit got to do with the IB Economics and IB Business courses? A lot. The topics of ‘ globalization’, ‘ trading blocs’ and ‘ common markets’ appears in the IB Economics syllabus ( Section 4, International Economics) and ‘globalization’ is one of the key concepts that runs throughout the IB Business course. The impact on a UK business of Brexit would also come under ‘the external environment’ in the IB Business course ( Section 1, Businesses and their External Environment).

Why did Brexit caused such a shock in markets around the world and how can we link it to the courses that we study?

Up until last Thursday the orthodox economic, business and political view was that globalization ‘is a good thing’. Globalization means the ” increasing inter-connectedness of the world, in all areas – economic, political, technological, social and cultural”. ( See blog post entitled ‘The Course Key Concepts‘ for some definitions of globalization). For businesses globalization opens up both opportunities and challenges. Opportunities include the ability to expand market share by selling in markets abroad, the ability to take advantage of economies of scale, the ability to cut costs by buying cheaper raw materials and by hiring cheaper foreign workers. There are potential challenges for businesses too – more competition from foreign competitors, the lowering of prices in markets and consequently lower profit margins, increasing threats to patents and copyright etc.

The EU, a trading bloc, is also an example globalization. In fact, it could be argued that it is an example of an attempt to accelerate the globalization process between and within a group of countries. The EU is a particular type of trading bloc, where not only goods and services are traded freely, but also the factors of production such as ‘labour ‘ and ‘capital’. Certain countries in the EU also share a single currency, the Euro, a situation known as ‘ economic and monetary union’. Those countries that belong to the Euro are highly integrated, both economically and politically. In order for countries to have the same currency, for example, they necessarily need to have the same monetary policies.

Britain never adopted the single currency, but it did adopt all the other obligations associated with being a member of the EU. So why did British voters vote for a Brexit?

Thousands of words can be written answering this question, but I will attempt to briefly outline what I think are the main reasons:-

1) One of the main obligations of being a member of the EU is adhering to the ‘free movement’ of labour rule. This means that anyone in any EU country has the right to find work in any other member country. One result for the UK of this has been a big increase in immigration from other EU member countries. For example, net EU migration into the UK in 2015 reached an all time high of 183,000, 53,000 higher than the previous year. This huge increase in the number of foreigners living in the UK has exacerbated social tensions, which, unfortunately, some right-wing and racist groups have actively attempted to exacerbate.

2) Disaffection with the current political system and current political elites, especially since the 2008 economic crisis. Many people in the UK were badly affected by the 2008 economic crisis and have suffered due to the policies the government has pursued since. Unemployment rose, people lost their properties because they were unable to pay off mortgages and others have seen the value of their properties fall. Moreover, due to ‘austerity’ measures taken by the government since, they have less access to high quality public services such as healthcare, housing and education. ( Austerity measures occur when governments reduce public spending to correct a budget deficit). In short, living standards have fallen for quite a lot of people in the UK.

3) An inability to see what the benefits of being part of the EU are. Membership of the EU benefits some people in the UK, but not all. Farmers, for example, receive a lot of subsidy money from the EU and have benefitted a lot, as have certain deprived inner-city areas, but many groups in society have not benefitted. Furthermore, any form of financial aid from Brussels is also accompanied by time consuming rules, regulations and bureaucracy, which seem to negate any benefits associated with it’s receipt.

4) Disillusion and dissatisfaction with globalization itself. Increasing competition from Chinese, Indian and US companies in the UK over the last few decades has resulted in the closure of many domestic companies. Workers have lost their jobs due to outsourcing. Those lucky enough to find another job are often forced to accept part-time contracts, or very short term contracts, with lower wages and worse terms and conditions. In short, their lives have become more precarious and unstable.

The vote by the UK to leave the EU was certainly a surprise, a surprise to the financial markets, to the established political elites in both the UK and in Europe, and to the writer of this blog. It was also a ‘ thumbs down’ to globalization by UK citizens,  a phenomenon whose benefits have passed many by.

For more information on Brexit, listen to this excellent podcast on the subject by the USA’s National Public Radio.

Business Internal Assessment (HL) – The Main Body

Students often don’t know how to begin writing the main body of their business I.A. In order to help them, I give them questions whose objectives are to guide them in the right direction, and to help them to create a ‘scaffold’ around which they can base their research.

Only after the students have followed these 5 stages, have collected their data and have written up their findings, do I ask them to format their IA according to the recommended format i.e. Introduction, Methodology, Main Results & Findings, Analysis & Discussion, Conclusion & Recommendations.

Stage 1.

Graphical portrayal of the problem / issue / decision being investigated and its effects (bar charts / line graphs / ratio analysis / break even etc.)


Stage 2.

What does the IB BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT THEORY / THE TEXTBOOK tell us how the problem / issue should be solved?

In your opinion, what strategies should be used?

Stage 3.

Is the company using these strategies? Yes or no?

If no, could it pursue your strategies?

Stage 4.

Evaluation of the above strategies, using BUSINESS ANALYTICAL TOOLS.

Which strategy / strategies would be the most successful and why?

Stage 5.

Conclusion and Recommendations for the company on how to improve their current strategies / implement new ones.

Weaknesses of study.

If you were to do the study again, how would you improve it?

With regard to Stage 5, the conclusions and recommendations section,  it is important that students don’t write any new or previously unmentioned content here. Any recommendations that the student makes should have already been discussed extensively in the main body.


Business Internal Assessment – The Introduction

Business & Management.

The introduction of your business internal assessment (IA) is very important because it is the first thing that your teacher, and any coursework moderators, will read. Is important, therefore, to make a good impression from the beginning.

Here is a template that I use to help students write their introduction. The advice that I give is start straight away with the business issue, problem or decision that you are investigating. A common mistake is to start your introduction giving a brief description of the company, it´s history etc. Avoid doing this. Only describe or explain your chosen company towards the end of the introduction if you have to. Remember, to keep your introduction brief – about 300 words for a Standard Level IA, and 400 for a Higher Level IA.

Description of problem / issue or decision the business has to make.

What effects are there on the company because of the problem?

Context (background situation).

Why is the problem / issue / decision important for the company?

What may happen to the company if they cannot resolve the problem / cannot make the decision?

Brief description / history of the company.

Carnival Float, Sao Paulo, 2015.
Carnival Float, Sao Paulo, 2015.

Limited Liability – Good or Bad for Society? (Part 2)

Business & Management.

I.B. Business syllabus links – 1.2 – Types of organisation (plc´s), 1.2 – Limited Liability, 1.4 – Stakeholders, 1.3 – Profit maximization, 1.3 – Business ethics, 1.3 – Business strategy, 1.6 – Growth & evolution

He-Joon Chang in his popular book “23 Things They Don´t Tell You About Capitalism” (see my previous post) argues that limited liability, combined with how plc´s have been managed recently, particularly in the Anglo-Saxon world of the USA and the U.K., has been bad for society.

He traces the origins of the problem back to 1981 when Jack Welsh, the then CEO of General Electric, coined the term ´maximizing shareholder value´. According to Welsh, this is what companies should do; aim to raise company share prices by increasing profits as much as possible and give as much dividend back as possible to shareholders. Managers were encouraged to do this by having part of their pay in share options. This created what Chang calls ‘an unholy alliance’ (P17) between shareholders and senior executives, both of whom benefit if the share price of their companies rise and rise.

What were the consequences of these policies?  According to Chang ” Jobs were ruthlessly cut, many workers were fired and re-hired as non-unionized labour with lower wages and fewer benefits and wage increases were surpressed …. The suppliers and their workers, were also squeezed by continued cuts in procurement prices” (P18). In other words, the other stakeholders in the business lost out.

Another strategy, moreover,  aimed at maximizing shareholder value became more and more popular – share buybacks. This is when a company uses it’s own profits to buy back it’s shares in order to artificially increase their value. According to Chang, prior to 1980 share buybacks made up just 5% of US company profit spending, by 2007 this figure had reached 90% and in 2008 just as the economic crisis was taking hold, reached 280% (P20)

These policies, moreover,  don’t even make good business sense. Less investment by companies (most of the money is being used to buy back shares or is being given to the shareholders) leads to lower long term productivity. Workers who are forced to accept wage cuts and more temporary or short term contracts, become demoralized and demotivated and consequently productivity falls.

Chang backs up his arguments with some astonishing statistics. Quoting the research of Willam Lazonik, a business economist, he says “…Had GM not spent the $20.4 billion that it did in share buybacks between 1986 and 2002 and put it in the bank (with a 2.5% after tax annual return), it would have had no problem finding the $35 billion that it needed to stave off bankruptcy in 2009” (P20). (GM, the large US automobile manufacturer, went bankrupt in 2009 and had to be bailed out at great expense using taxpayers money by the US government).

Below is a video outlining the story of GM´s bankruptcy:-